The Life Story of Chief Joseph and Remembering some of his Famous Quotations M. Saadat Noury Life 43 hours ago Balatarin His Life Story Chief Joseph was born on March 3, 1840, in Wallowa Valley, Oregon Territory. When the United States attempted to force the Nez Perce to move to a reservation in 1877, he reluctantly agreed. Following the killing of a group of white settlers, tensions erupted again, and Chief Joseph tried to lead his people to Canada, in what is considered one of the great retreats in military history. The leader of one band of the Nez Perce people, Chief Joseph was born as “Hin-mah-too-yah-lat-kekt” in 1840 in the Wallowa Valley in what is now Oregon. His formal Native American name translates to Thunder Rolling Down a Mountain, but he was largely known as Joseph, the same name his father, Joseph the Elder, had taken after being baptized in 1838. Joseph the Elder’s relationship with the whites had been unprecedented. He’d been one of the early Nez Perce leaders to convert to Christianity, and his influence had gone a long way toward establishing peace with his white neighbors. In 1855, he forged a new treaty that created a new reservation for the Nez Perce. But that peace was fragile. After gold was discovered in the Nez Perce territory, white prospectors began to stream onto their lands. The relationship was soon upended when the United States government took back millions of acres it had promised to Joseph the Elder and his people. The irate chief denounced his former American friends and destroyed his Bible. More significantly, he refused to sign off on the boundaries of this “new” reservation and leave the Wallowa Valley. Following Joseph the Elder’s death in 1871, Chief Joseph assumed his father’s leadership role as well as the positions he’d staked out for his people. As his father had done before him, Chief Joseph, along with fellow Nez Perce leaders, chiefs Looking Glass and White Bird, balked at the resettlement plan. As tensions mounted, the three chiefs sensed that violence was imminent. In 1877, recognizing what a war could mean for their people, the chiefs backed down and agreed to the new reservation boundaries. Just before the move, however, warriors from White Bird’s band attacked and killed several white settlers. Chief Joseph understood there would be brutal repercussions and in an effort to avoid defeat, and most likely his own death, he led his people on what is now widely considered one of the most remarkable retreats in military history. Over the course of four long months, Chief Joseph and his 700 followers, a group that included just 200 actual warriors, embarked on a 1,400-mile march toward Canada. The journey included several impressive victories against a US force that numbered more than 2,000 soldiers. But the retreat took its toll on the group. By the fall of 1877 Chief Joseph and his people were exhausted. They had come within 40 miles of the Canadian border, reaching the Bear Paw Mountains of Montana, but were too beaten and starving to continue to fight. Having seen his warriors reduced to just 87 fighting men, having weathered the loss of his own brother, Olikut, and having seen many of the women and children near starvation, Chief Joseph surrendered to his enemy, delivering one of the great speeches in American history. “I am tired of fighting,” he said. “Our chiefs are killed. Looking Glass is dead… The old men are all dead. It is the young men who say, ‘Yes’ or ‘No.’ He who led the young men [Olikut] is dead. It is cold, and we have no blankets. The little children are freezing to death. My people, some of them, have run away to the hills, and have no blankets, no food. No one knows where they are, perhaps freezing to death. I want to have time to look for my children, and see how many of them I can find. Maybe I shall find them among the dead. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever”. Regarded in the American press as the “Red Napoleon,” Chief Joseph achieved great acclaim in the latter half of his life. Still, not even his standing among the whites could help his people return to their homeland in the Pacific Northwest. Following his surrender, Chief Joseph and his people were escorted, first to Kansas, and then to what is present-day Oklahoma. Joseph spent the next several years pleading his people’s case, even meeting with President Rutherford Hayes in 1879. Finally, in 1885, Joseph and others were allowed to return to the Pacific Northwest, but it was far from a perfect solution. So many of his people had already perished, either from war or disease, and their new home was still miles from their true homeland in the Wallowa Valley. Chief Joseph did not live to see again the land he’d known as a child and young warrior. He died on September 21, 1904, and was buried in the Colville Indian Cemetery on the Colville Reservation in the state of Washington. The Advice of Joseph the Elder to his Son Joseph the Younger succeeded his father as leader of the Wallowa band in 1871. Before his death, Joseph the Elder advised his son: “My son, my body is returning to my mother earth, and my spirit is going very soon to see the Great Spirit Chief. When I am gone, think of your country. You are the chief of these people. They look to you to guide them. Always remember that your father never sold his country. You must stop your ears whenever you are asked to sign a treaty selling your home. A few years more and white men will be all around you. They have their eyes on this land. My son, never forget my dying words. This country holds your father’s body. Never sell the bones of your father and your mother”. Joseph commented: “I clasped my father’s hand and promised to do as he asked. A man who would not defend his father’s grave is worse than a wild beast”. Ten Famous Quotations by Joseph the Younger 1. It does not require many words to speak the truth 2. The earth is the mother of all people, and all people should have equal rights upon it 3. Treat all men alike. Give them the same law. Give them an even chance to live and grow 4. Let me be a free man – free to travel, free to stop, free to work 5. I will speak with a straight tongue 6. I have heard talk and talk, but nothing is done 7. It makes my heart sick when I remember all the good words and the broken promises 8. Hear me, my chiefs! I am tired. My heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands, I will fight no more forever 9. I believe much trouble would be saved if we opened our hearts more 10. We ask to be recognized as men Collected and Prepared By Manouchehr Saadat Noury, PhD